Medial apophysitis, or pitcher’s elbow, is a condition that occurs as a result of an injury or irritation to the inside of the elbow, commonly affecting young athletes. It is often classified as an “overuse syndrome” in baseball or softball players in the developmental stages of rapid growth (approximately 11 to 15 years of age). Pitcher’s elbowcan be identified and effectively treated by a physical therapist.
he medial collateral ligament (MCL) is the most commonly damaged ligament in the knee. The MCL can be sprained or torn as a result of a blow to the outer side of the knee, by twisting the knee, or by quickly changing directions while walking or running. MCL injury most often occurs in athletes, although nonathletes can also be affected. A physical therapist treats an MCL sprain or tear to reduce pain, swelling, stiffness, and any associated weakness in the knee or lower extremity.
Medial epicondylitis (commonly called golfer’s elbow or thrower’s elbow) is a condition that develops when the tendons on the inside of the forearm become irritated, inflamed, and painful due to repetitive use of the hand, wrist, forearm and elbow. It is often diagnosed in people who perform repetitive motions, such as swinging a golf club or tennis racket, or activities requiring gripping, twisting, or throwing. Even using a computer or performing yard work can cause the condition. It is most common in men over the age of 35. A physical therapist can help decrease the pain caused by medial epicondylitis, and improve the affected elbow’s motion, strength, and function.
The meniscal tear is a common injury. It can affect athletes who play individuals and team sports. It’s also common in people who have jobs that require lots of squatting, such as plumbers or coal miners. Your physical therapist can help you manage the injury and, if surgery is required, can help you prepare for the procedure and recover your strength and movement afterward.
Meralgia parasthetica, or Bernhardt-Roth syndrome, describes a condition in which numbness, tingling, or burning pain is felt in the outer portion of the thigh. It occurs as a result of nerve compression. Meralgia parasthetica most commonly affects middle-aged individuals, and men more than women. However, it can develop in people of all ages. Physical therapy is a safe and effective approach for managing the symptoms, and some causes, of meralgia parasthetica.
Multidirectional Instability of the Shoulder (MDI)
Shoulder instability is a common injury among people participating in contact and noncontact athletic activities. While many people associate shoulder instability with a traumatic event such as a dislocation, multidirectional instability (MDI) can occur without trauma. MDI commonly occurs in people who have increased a joint’s movement, or have not exercised the joint over a period of time. Weakness of the shoulder joint (rotator cuff) can increase the risk of MDI. After treating the pain and inflammation caused by MDI of the shoulder, physical therapy focuses on strengthening the muscles that support the shoulder blade (scapula) and shoulder joint (rotator cuff) to aid a return to activity and prevent reinjury.
Osgood-Schlatter disease (OS) is an overuse injury causing pain in the knee area and often a visible growth just below the kneecap. The development of OS is most often a consequence of excessive stress to the front of the knee during periods of rapid skeletal growth. Because adolescents typically experience the greatest rate of skeletal growth, this population is most commonly affected by OS. The condition can be effectively treated by a physical therapist.
“Arthritis” is a term used to describe inflammation of the joints. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and usually is caused by the deterioration of a joint. Typically, the weight-bearing joints are affected, with the knee and the hip being the most common.
Osteoarthritis of the Hip, Knee, Shoulder, Spine, etc.
Hip osteoarthritis is inflammation of the hip joint. It can develop at any age, although it is more commonly diagnosed in older adults. Hip osteoarthritis can make everyday activities such as walking or climbing stairs difficult.
Osteoarthritis of the knee (knee OA) is the inflammation and degeneration of the bones that form the knee joint (osteo=bone, arthro=joint, itis=inflammation). The diagnosis of knee OA is based on 2 primary findings: radiographic evidence of changes in bone health (through medical images such as x-ray and MRI) and an individual’s symptoms (how you feel). Approximately 14% of adults aged 25+ and 34% of adults aged 65+ are diagnosed with radiographic osteoarthritis. Specifically, about 16% of adults aged 45+ have knee OA.
Shoulder osteoarthritis (OA) is a condition that occurs when the cartilage that lines the sides of the shoulder joint is worn or torn away. It may be caused by injury or dislocation of the shoulder, or “wear and tear” of the shoulder over time. Shoulder OA develops most often in people in their 50s and beyond. As people misuse or overuse their joints over time, more cases are seen with each advancing decade of life. However, shoulder OA can also develop in younger people after trauma or surgery to a joint. The condition occurs more frequently in women than men. Physical therapists treat shoulder OA with hands-on therapy and individualized exercise programs.
Osteoarthritis (OA) of the spine is a condition that usually occurs with aging and is typically diagnosed after age 50. Its causes include injury to the spine, wear and tear on the discs of the spine (often associated with obesity), or an inherited tendency to develop OA. Sometimes the cause is unknown. OA of the spine may cause pain and stiffness; and make it difficult to bend over, perform weight-bearing activities such as walking, and accomplish daily tasks such as dressing and bathing. Your physical therapist will help you manage your condition, lessen your discomfort, and get moving again.
Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is a condition that involves damage to the cartilage and underlying bone within a joint. When this damage occurs, a fragment of the cartilage comes loose from the bone. OCD most commonly occurs in individuals between the ages of 10 and 20, typically affecting males more than females. The most common joints in which this condition occurs are the knee and the ankle, as they are weight-bearing joints. OCD may be caused by repetitive trauma or from a single traumatic episode. If identified early, OCD is a condition that can be effectively treated by a physical therapist.
Osteopenia, now called low bone mass, is a term used to describe lower-than-normal bone density or thickness. Approximately 44 million adults in the United States have osteopenia.The condition is different than osteoporosis, which is a disease where normal bone structure becomes thinned out and porous.
Osteoporosis is a common disease that causes a thinning and weakening of the bones. It can affect people of any age. Women have the greatest risk of developing the disease, although it also occurs in men. Osteoporosis affects 55% of Americans aged 50 or older; one-half of women and a quarter of men will fracture a bone.